For a complete list of publications, see Google Scholar.


(a) MD bench-scale test with RO concentrate as the feed solution, ultrapure water as the distillate, and a control volume RO concentrate spiked with HCoV-229E at 25 °C. The detection limit for the virus concentration was 1 MPN/50 mL (dashed line) in the distillate and 50 MPN/50 mL (dashed bar) in the feed solution. The feed temperature was gradually increased everyhour from 25 to 60 °C to observe the effect of temperature on the virus concentration. The corresponding distillate temperature increased from 7 to 25 °C, and the water flux increased from 5 to 20 L/m2 h throughout the test. No permeation of HCoV-229E to the distillate was detected, and no virus was detected in the feed solution once the temperature reached 50 °C. (b) Samples of RO concentrate spiked with HCoV-229E were placed in water baths at constant temperatures and showed 2-log10reduction in virus concentration at 40 °C after 5 hours and were below the detection limit (indicated by arrows) at 50 °C after the first hour.



Graphical abstract: Emerging investigator series: membrane distillation and high salinity: analysis and implications


2009 - 2019

  • K.E. Rodman*, A.A. Cervania*, V. Budig-Markin*, O.W. Rogers*, J.M. Martinez*, J. King*, P. Hassett*, J. Burns*, M.S. Gonzales*, A. Folkerts*, P. Duin*, C.F. Schermesser*, A.S. Virgil*, M. Aldrete*, A. Lagasca*, A. Infanzon- Marin*, J.R. Aitchison*, D. White*, B.C. Boutros*, S. Ortega*, B. Davis*, V.N. Tran*, and A. Achilli, “Coastal California wastewater effluent as a resource for seawater desalination brine commingling”, Water, 10 (2018) 322.

  • N.R. Armstrong, R.C. Shallcross, K. Ogden, S.A. Snyder, A. Achilli, E.L. Armstrong, “Challenges and opportunities at the nexus of energy, water, and food”, MRS Energy and Sustainability, 5 (2018).

  • D.M. Warsinger, S. Chakraborty, E.W. Tow, M.H. Plumlee, S. Loutatidou, C. Bellona, L. Karimi, A.M. Mikelonis, A. Achilli, et al., “A review of polymeric membranes and processes for potable water reuse”, Progress in Polymer Science, 81 (2018) 209-237.

  • C.P. Morrow, N.M. Furtaw, J.R. Murphy, A. Achilli, E. A. Marchand, S.R. Hiibel, A.E. Childress, “Integrating an aerobic/anoxic osmotic membrane bioreactor with membrane distillation for potable reuse”, Desalination, 432 (2018) 46–54.

  • G. O’Toole, L. Jones*, C. Coutinho, C. Hayes, M. Napoles, A. Achilli, “River-to-sea pressure retarded osmosis: resource utilization in a full-scale facility”, Desalination, 389 (2016) 39-51.

  • R.D. Gustafson*, J.R. Murphy*, A. Achilli, “A stepwise model of direct contact membrane distillation for application to large-scale systems: experimental results and model predictions”, Desalination, 378 (2016) 14-27.

  • A. Achilli and R.W. Holloway, “Aerobic membrane bioreactor”, in: Encyclopedia of Membranes, E. Drioli and L. Giorno Editors, Springer, 2016.

  • A. Achilli and K.L. Hickenbottom, “Pressure retarded osmosis: applications”, in: Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients, A. Cipollina and G.M. Micale Editors, Woodhead Publishing – Elsevier, 2016 

  • R.W. Holloway, A. Achilli, T.Y. Cath, “The osmotic membrane bioreactor: a critical review”, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology 1 (2015) 581-605.

  • G. Rao, S.R. Hiibel, A. Achilli, A.E. Childress, “Factors attributing to flux improvement in vacuum-enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (VEDCMD)”, Desalination, 367 (2015) 197-205.

  • A. Achilli, J.L. Prante, N.T. Hancock, E.B. Maxwell, A.E. Childress, “Experimental results from RO-PRO: a next generation system for low-energy desalination”, Environmental Science and Technology, 48 (2014) 6437-6443.

  • J.L. Prante, J.A. Ruskowitz, A.E. Childress, A. Achilli, “RO-PRO desalination: an integrated low-energy approach to seawater desalination”, Applied Energy, 120 (2014) 104-114.

  • A. Achilli, T.Y. Cath, A.E. Childress, “Osmotically assisted desalination method and system”, patent # US 8,801,934 B2, August 12, 2014, Assignee: University of Nevada, Reno.
  • T.Y. Cath, M. Elimelech, J.R. McCutcheon, R.L. McGinnis, A. Achilli, et al., “Standard methodology for evaluating membrane performance in osmotically driven membrane processes”, Desalination, 312 (2013) 31-38.

  • A.E. Childress and A. Achilli, “Pressure-retarded osmosis”, in: Encyclopedia of Membrane Science and Technology, E.M.V. Hoek and V.V. Tarabara Editors, Wiley, 2013.
  • K.S. Bowden, A. Achilli, A.E. Childress, “Organic ionic draw salt solutions for osmotic membrane bioreactors”, Bioresource Technology, 122 (2012) 207-216.

  • A. Achilli, E.A. Marchand, A.E. Childress, “A performance evaluation of three membrane bioreactor systems: aerobic, anaerobic, and attached-growth”, Water Science and Technology, 63 (2011) 2999-3005.

  • A. Achilli, T.Y. Cath, A.E. Childress, “Selection of inorganic-based draw solutions for forward osmosis applications”, Journal of Membrane Science, 364 (2010) 233-241.

  • A. Achilli and A.E. Childress, “Pressure retarded osmosis: from the vision of Sidney Loeb to the first prototype installation – Review”, Desalination, 261 (2010) 205-211.

  • A. Achilli, T.Y. Cath, A.E. Childress, “Power generation with pressure retarded osmosis: an experimental and theoretical investigation”, Journal of Membrane Science, 343 (2009) 42-52.

  • A. Achilli, T.Y. Cath, E.A. Marchand, A.E. Childress, “The forward osmosis membrane bioreactor: a low fouling alternative to MBR processes”, Desalination, 239 (2009) 10-21.

*Undergraduate student